2021 Vol. 23, No. 4

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Mining and Trading of Ancient Lapis Lazuli: The Exploration for A Combination of Twofold Evidence Based on Historical Documents and Archaeology Discovery
LAI Shuqi, QIU Zhili, YANG Jiong, LUO Han, ZHENG Xinyu, YE Xu
2021, 23(4): 1-11. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.001
Lapis lazuli with a vivid and bright imperial blue colour was used widely in Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, ancient India, ancient Rome, ancient China and other early ancient civilizations. However, due to the lack of producing areas and the constraints of archaeological materials, the domestic understanding of the origin, trade and cultural exchange of lapis lazis is still relatively limited. Based on the research at home and abroad, this study aimed to systematically sorting and summarizing the previous results of exploitation, trade route and employment of lapis lazuli, which provides reference for the interdisciplinary research of gemmology, archaeology, and other disciplines. The main results were summarized as follows: (1) Although archaeological findings still can not explain the origin of lapis lazuli found at some sites, geological and archaeological evidences suggest that Afghanistan is the most important source of lapis lazuli; (2) As early as 4500 B.C., the trade of lapis lazuli was well-organized, and three different trade and transportation routes in different time periods (4500 B.C.-3500 B.C., 3500 B.C.-1000 B.C. and 1000 B.C.-early A.D.) can be traced back. In the early stage, land and river transportation were the primary, in the medium-stage, sea transportation developed rapidly, and in the late stage, these three routes were closely combined. Route changes were controlled by multiple factors such as geographical environment, urban rise and fall, and the public demand; (3) Archaeological studies and literature records showed that the use and role of ancient lapis lazuli have changed significantly. The worldwide urban cultural diversification have made the sanctified lapis lazuli present a variety forms of use, and simultaneously it shows ancient people's multifarious cognition on the colour of lapis lazuli. The researches of lapis lazuli material resource exploitation, trading and uses in international academia can provide us important reference to explore the development and circulation of jade in early ancient China.
Composition Characteristic of Turquoise from Mongolia
LIU Jia, YANG Mingxing, LIU Ling
2021, 23(4): 12-19. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.002
The turquoise from Mongolia is rich in colour, ranging from blue to green. To enrich the study on the composition of turquoise from Mongolia, this study determined the contents of main components, trace elements, and rare earth elements(REE) by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The content of Al2O3, P2O5, CuO and TFeO were 35.22%-36.73%, 34.34%-35.84%, 8.27%-9.24% and 2.20%-3.76% respectively. The TFeO / CuO ratio of the sample increased with the colour change from blue to green. As the increase of Fe3+ content, the green hue of the sample increases. The content of As was as high as 1 453.9-1 760.3 mg/kg. The EDS scanning showed that As was uniform distributed in the sample substrate. The contents of Sr, Ba, and Pb in the samples were higher than those in Anhui, Shaanxi, and Hubei provinces. The U content was similar to that in turquoise samples from Ma'anshan and Ankang of Anhui Province, and lower than that in Yunyang district and Zhushan area of Hubei Province. There were two different patterns of REE distribution, one was right inclined, and the heavy and light rare earth were differentiated, and Eu loss was not obvious; the other was rich in medium rare earth, and the difference between light and heavy rare earth was relatively insignificant, and Eu showed positive anomaly. According to the difference of distribution curves, it was inferred that there were two stages of mineralization of turquoise, low temperature hydrothermal metasomatism and weathering leaching. The rare earth content of the former was higher than that of the latter, and the light rare earth was enriched, while the latter was lost, but the contents of medium rare earth and heavy rare earth were consistent with the former. The author studied and determined the composition characteristics of turquoise in this area and infers the genesis of turquoise and provided the basis for distinguishing the origin of turquoise from Mongolia.
Gemmological Characteristic of Purple-Brownish Red Garnet from Zambia
QU Mengwen, ZHONG Yuan, Andy Hsitien Shen
2021, 23(4): 20-28. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.003
The Magodi mining area in Zambia is a new source of purple-brownish red garnets, but there are only a few studies on this locality. In this paper, the garnets from Zambia were systematically studied by conventional gemmological tests, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), Raman spectrometer (Raman) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometer (UV-Vis). The refractive index of garnets from Zambia is about 1.750-1.772, and the relative density is about 3.77-3.92. The garnets correspond to the almandine-pyrope series, which contain minor mineral components like grossularite and spessartite. Besides, inclusions are rich in variety, such as transparent euhedral to semi-euhedral mineral inclusions, round ablation inclusions, dense rod or granular inclusions, long needle-like inclusions with parallel arrangement, "fingerprint-like" healed fractures, etc. Raman spectra showed that the mineral inclusions include rutile, zircon and anatase. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra are mainly related to the transition of d-d orbitals of Fe2+, Fe3+ and Mn2+ ions. High content of Fe2+ produces the main absorption in yellow-green spectrum region, leading to higher transmittance in red region and blue-violet region, which mix into the purple hue of some samples. The other samples with brownish-red hue produce stronger absorptions at 368 nm and 425 nm that related to Fe3+ than the purple samples, which decreases the transmission of blue and violet light, thus relatively more light transmits through the red region, causing the brownish-red hue. The chemical composition, absorption spectrum and inclusions characteristics provide references for studying the deposit genesis and geological background of garnets from Zambia, as well as the basis for determination of provenance.
Gemmological Characteristic of Orange-Red Tridacna
CHEN Jingjing, LUO Yueping, WANG Yan
2021, 23(4): 29-32. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.004
Recently, an orange-red tridacna variety appeared in the market.Representative orange-red tridacna samples were selected and a series of systematic gemmological tests and spectral analysis were carried out. The morphological characteristics of the gemstones were observed by microscope, the species composition of samples was tested by infrared spectrometer, and the colour genesis was analyzed by micro-laser Raman spectrometer. The results were compared with those of "golden tridacna" samples which are relatively common in the market. It was found that the infrared spectral peak of orange-red tridacna is consistent with that of tridacna. The characteristic peaks of armanite and pigment related peaks at 1 130 cm-1 and 1 520 cm-1 were measured by Raman spectrometer. Compared with the white part of the orange-red tridacna samples, it was found that the colour genesis is mainly related to natural organic pigment carotene, which belongs to natural colour genesis.
Gemmological Characteristic and Colour of Zircon under Heat Treatment in Reducing Condition
YAN Xiaoxu, YUE Suwei, LI Suitian, WANG Peilian
2021, 23(4): 33-38. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.005
The colour center caused by radioactive decay in zircons can be removed by heat treatment. This behavior also may modify their colour and transparency to improve the ornamental and commercial value. A large majority of blue zircons in the market are obtained from reddish-brown zircon by heat treatment under high temperature. However, the colour mechanism of which have long been controversial.Reddish-brown and yellowish-brown zircons were applied in this study, and heated in reducing atmosphere in order to confirm the optimum temperature of blue colour modification. The mechanism of altering colour in heat treatment was also investigated in this study by analyzing their standard gemmological properties, infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). The results of heat treatment showed that reddish-brown zircons could be changed into light blue zircons by heat treatment under 950-1 000 ℃ in reducing atmosphere.The IR spectra of the samples at 434 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 before heat treatment show their low metamictization.After heat treatment, the absorption of 438/436 cm-1 (peak) get strengthened and the 1 100-900 cm-1 (band) narrowed down, which indicates that the crystalline state of the samples restored. The UV-Vis spectra of the samples showed that the absorption band around 510 nm was generated by Y3+substituting with Zr4+, leading to radiation and turned colourless crystalline zircons into reddish-brown metamict ones. After heat treatment, the vanishment of 510 nm band was caused by the breaking down of colour center generated by Y3+substitution. The 800 nm band showed weak intensity, with the emergence of absorption around 640 nm. The strong absorption peak of 653 nm and 690 nm and a series of weak absorption peaks were caused by U4+. The 640 nm band was presumed to be the main cause of the blue colour of the treated samples, and the 653 nm with its surrounding absorptions might relevant to it.
Application of the Honeysuckle Pattern in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties in Jewelry Design
ZHAO Linqi, LI Juzi
2021, 23(4): 39-46. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.006
The honeysuckle pattern is a traditional Chinese pattern. It was introduced into China in the Wei, Jin, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties and combined with the cloud pattern of the Han Dynasty to form the unique traditional pattern. Its inherent cultural meaning and design concept are indispensable parts of modern design theory, and the study of honeysuckle pattern in that period provides a deep understanding of the history and culture of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. The article starts with the relevant literature, sorts out the types of the honeysuckle patterns in the Wei, Jin, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties and analyzes their inner implications. This article also studies the relationship between the honeysuckle pattern and modern jewelry design and discusses the feasible manufacturing techniques and materials. Finally, the design practice is carried out by combining the structure and cultural connotation of the honeysuckle pattern of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties with modern jewelry design. The article uses jewelry design to inherit Chinese traditional patterns and puts forward some thoughts, hoping to better integrate Chinese traditional patterns into jewelry design, and show a jewelry of modern aesthetic without losing China's national characteristics.
Ring Design with Rotating Movable Structure by Selective Laser Melting
LI Yuan, WEN Hai
2021, 23(4): 47-54. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.007
Jewelry with movable structure is time-consuming and difficult to make by traditional jewelry manufacturing process. By 3D printing active structure, jewelry design works can be rapidly integrated by printing equipment, which overcomes the limitations of traditional jewelry manufacture. The authors compared and analyzed three kinds of 3D printing technology applied in jewelry design. Finally the selective laser melting was chosen to study the suitable movable structure for jewelry 3D printing, and a ring with rotating movable structure that is difficult to realize in traditional jewelry manufacturing process was designed and printed. The combination of advanced jewelry manufacture technology and contemporary jewelry art were tried to broaden. By optimizing the internal structure of the model, the problems of support interference and uneven gaps between parts in printing active structure were overcome. Meanwhile, the interaction between people and jewelry is enhanced with the rotating movable structure.
Suggestion on the Development and Utilization of Gem and Jade Resource in Western Yunnan Province
ZHENG Xiaohua, BAI Ying
2021, 23(4): 55-60. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.008
The West Yunnan Province is rich in precious jade resources, of which the Nanhong agate and quartzose jade (Huanglongyu) produced in the Baoshan area are the most representative. Based on the mineral resources of Nanhong agate and quartzose jade (Huanglongyu) in the area, this paper analyzes the corresponding benefits of the gemstone resource development and utilization to the local jewelry industry, and puts forward suggestions on the development and utilization of the resources from the perspective of industrial development and public management, and provides references for the formulation of industrial development policies. Through the comprehensive investigation and research on the output and market situation of the two kinds of precious gemstone, the problems existing in the exploitation of the resources in this area are analyzed, and the development plan of the gemstone resources is put forward. The governors should pay attention to the environmental protection factors in mining, strengthen the protection of cultural heritage, and speed up the industrial transformation and upgrading.
Influencing Factor Analysis of the Hammer Price of Yellow Diamond Online Auction: A Case Study of Ali Auction Hammer Price
WANG Shumin, ZHOU Qishen, WANG Ge, ZHOU Yuqing
2021, 23(4): 61-69. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.009
In this paper, the factors affecting the hammer price of yellow diamonds were explored and analyzed through the auction data of yellow diamonds from July to September 2019 of Ali Auction. After constructing a five-factor model including auction setting, item description, commodity attribution, buyer competition and bidding strategy, the relevant hypothesis was put forward, and the empirical test was carried out by using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. It was found that the mark-up range in auction setting, the weight and colour grade of the diamonds in commodity attribute, the bidding times in buyer competition and the jumping bid in bidding strategy all have significant effects on the hammer price. Other factors such as margin, the number of pictures, the status of the end of the auction, and the number of applicants etc. have no significant impact on the hammer price.
Analysis of Employment Situation of Gemstone and Material Technology Program and Suggestions for Talent Training: Taking the Gemmological Institute of China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) as an Example
MENG Guoqiang, CHEN Meihua, CHEN Quanli
2021, 23(4): 70-75. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2021.04.010
Gemstone and material technology program integrates geology with materials science, and it is highly recognized in the society. In order to study the employment status and feedback on teaching activities of gemstone and material technology program, the employment data of the gemstone and material technology major of the Gemmological Institute of China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, Hubei Province, Class of 2016 to 2020 were collected and analyzed. 97 graduates graduated between 2017-2019, 5 employers and 2 professional teachers were investigated through E-mail, telephone and interview. The results showed that the employment rate of this program remains above 96%, and graduates are satisfied with the school and the program, and employers are satisfied with the graduates and the institute. There are several feedback on teaching, such as the teaching content needs to be optimized, the talent training program needs to be improved, and the construction of the teacher team needs to be strengthened. Based on the analysis and investigation, it was proposed that the institute should enhance the talent training quality by improving the training pattern, deepening the reform of education and teaching, and launching employment promotion activities to promote the employment of graduates.