Volume 22 Issue 6
Jan.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jiajing FU, Fanglin LYU, Tian SHAO, Shuochen LI, Hsitien Shen Andy. Gemmological Characteristic of 'Recrystallized' (Synthetic) Corundum in Market[J]. Journal of Gems & Gemmology , 2020, 22(6): 9-19. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2020.06.002
Citation: Jiajing FU, Fanglin LYU, Tian SHAO, Shuochen LI, Hsitien Shen Andy. Gemmological Characteristic of "Recrystallized" (Synthetic) Corundum in Market[J]. Journal of Gems & Gemmology , 2020, 22(6): 9-19. doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2020.06.002

Gemmological Characteristic of "Recrystallized" (Synthetic) Corundum in Market

doi: 10.15964/j.cnki.027jgg.2020.06.002
  • Received Date: 2019-11-26
  • Publish Date: 2020-11-01
  • "Reconstructed" and "recrystallized" gemstones have begun to appear in the jewelry market since the late 20th century. Unlike synthetic gemstones made from chemosynthetic materials, the merchants claim that the raw materials of "recrystallized" gemstones are natural gem fragments or powder. In order to figure out the nature of "recrystallized" gemstones, 21 samples of "recrystallized" corundum sold by Anupam Gems Japan Ltd. are analyzed by conventional gemmological instruments, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results show that these "recrystallized" corundum samples are actually flux-grown and flame-fusion synthetic gemstones. Synthetic gemstones made by chemosynthetic materials that marketed as "recrystallized" gemstones turn out to be a marketing ploy of merchants. "Recrystallized" corundum is monocrystal. The yellow sapphires all contain round bubbles. One of the samples is in uneven colour and has colourless or orange-red dendritic and mesh-like inclusions which range from translucent to opaque. And they contain few trace elements except for a small amount of chromophore Ni. However, natural yellow sapphires usually contain a large amount of Fe and other trace elements such as Mg, Ti, Ga and V. The blue sapphires are internally flawless without natural inclusions. The content of Fe and Ga elements is significantly lower than that of the natural blue sapphires, and that some samples contain the element Be. The rubies contain a large number of bubbles and curved growth striations, and some samples also contain uncrystallized molten materials. There is no Fe element detected and the content of trace elements is low. The colour-change corundum has a clean interior. In addition, the blue sapphires, rubies and colour-change corundum all have absorption peaks at around 3 309, 3 231 cm-1 and 3 186 cm-1 in infrared spectrum which are the characteristic peaks of flame-fusion synthetic corundum.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Koivula J I, Kammerling R C. Gem news: The pool synthetic emerald[J]. Gems & Gemology, 1988, 24(4): 252-253.
    Robert C, Kammerling, Koivula J I, et al. Gem news: "Recrystallized" synthetics[J]. Gems & Gemology, 1995, 31(1): 71.
    Kadleikova M, Breza J, Vesely M. Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire[J]. Microelectronics Journal, 2001, 32(12): 955-958. doi: 10.1016/S0026-2692(01)00087-8
    康亚楠, 田云辉, 祖恩东.天然蓝宝石与合成蓝宝石的拉曼光谱研究[J].昆明理工大学学报:自然科学版, 2015, 40(6):20-22. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KMLG201506005.htm
    刘江霞, 亓利剑, 曾骥良, 等.桂林水热法合成黄色蓝宝石的宝石学特性研究[J].宝石和宝石学杂志, 2001, 3(1):7-11. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-214X.2001.01.002
    周全德, 王以群.红宝石傅里叶红外光谱研究[J].宝石和宝石学杂志, 2000, 2(1):23-26. http://bshb.cbpt.cnki.net/WKD/WebPublication/paperDigest.aspx?paperID=5ce9bac1-df05-4174-ad80-5c054c9d08dd
    谢意红.蓝宝石的紫外-可见光谱及其致色机理分析[J].宝石和宝石学杂志, 2004, 6(1):9-12. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-214X.2004.01.003
    方书淦, 张启仁.晶体色心物理学[M].上海:上海交通大学出版社, 1989: 306.
    亓利剑, 曾春光, 曹姝旻.扩散处理合成蓝宝石的特征及其扩散机制[J].宝石和宝石学杂志, 2006, 8(3):4-9. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-214X.2006.03.002
    陈超洋, 黄伟志, 邵天, 等.特殊变色蓝宝石的紫外-可见光光谱研究[J].光谱学与光谱分析, 2019, 39(8):2 470-2 473. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-GUAN201908029.htm
    Abduriyim A, Kitawaki H. Applications of Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(LA-ICP-MS) to gemology[J]. Gems & Gemology, 2006, 42(2): 98-118.
    Katsurada Y. Yellow, green, and blue sapphires reportedly from Antang and Gombe, Nigeria[J]. Gems & Gemology, 2017, 53(3): 380-382.
    Guo J, Wang F, Yakoumelos G. Sapphires from Changle in Shandong Province, China[J]. Gems & Gemology, 1992, 28(4): 255-260.
    Sangsawong S, Pardieu V, Raynaud V, et al. "Punsiri"-type FTIR spectral features in natural yellow sapphires[J]. Gems & Gemology, 2016, 52(3): 325-327.
    Zwaan J C, Buter E, Mertz-Kraus R, et al. Alluvial sapphires from Montana: Inclusions, geochemistry, and indications of a metasomatic origin[J]. Gems & Gemology, 2016, 51(4): 370-391.
    Schwarz D, Kanis J, Schmetzer K. Sapphires from Antsiranana Province, Northern Madagascar[J]. Gems & Gemology, 2000, 36(3): 216-233.
    Soonthorntantikul W, Atikarnsakul U, Weeramonkhonlert V. Update on spectroscopy of "gold sheen" sapphires[J]. Gems & Gemology, 2016, 52(4): 413-414.
    An in-depth study of blue sapphires from Pailin, Cambodia[EB/OL].[2017-12-22]. https://www.gia.edu/gia-news-research/blue-sapphires-pailin-cambodia.
    A study of rubies from Cambodia & Thailand[EB/OL].[2017-08-07]. https://www.gia.edu/gia-news-research/study-rubies-cambodia-thailand.
    Benson L B. Many "reconstructed rubies" found to be synthetic corundum[J]. Gems & Gemology, 1952, 7(5): 139-144, 166.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (398) PDF downloads(21) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint